A deed is a legal instrument used by an owner, the grantor, to transfer title to
real estate voluntarily to another party, the grantee

1.Delivery and acceptance
3.Deed clauses and covenants
4.Statutory deeds
5.Special purpose deeds
6.Transfer tax

1.Delivery and acceptance

유효한 행위의 실행 자체는 소유권을 전달하지 않습니다. 소유권이 전달되려면 증서가 수여자에게 전달되고 수여자가 수락해야 합니다. 법적으로 유효하려면 증서의 전달은 설정자가

 배송 시 유능한
 물리적 전달을 넘어선 행위를 전달하려는 의도

수여자 수락의 유효성은 수여자가 증서를 물리적으로 소유하거나 증서를 기록하는 것만을 요구합니다.
수락되면 타이틀이 수혜자에게 넘어갑니다. 증서는 법적 목적을 달성했으며 재산을 양도하는 데 다시 사용할 수 없습니다. 양수인이 증서를 분실한 경우 유산에 대한 수여자의 소유권에는 영향이 없습니다. 부여자,
예를 들어, 수여자가 증서를 전달 및 수락한 후 분실했다는 이유로 유산을 회수할 수 없습니다. 양도인은 증서를 반환하여 재산을 반환할 수도 없습니다. 그렇게 하려면 수혜자가 새로운 증서를 실행해야 합니다.
Torrens 시스템을 사용하는 주에서는 소유권 증서에 증서가 등록되고 새 소유자에게 양도 증명서가 발급된 경우에만 소유권이 이전됩니다.

주법에 따라 증서는 다음 요건을 충족해야 합니다.
타당성. 증서는 다음을 충족해야 합니다.
 배송 및 접수
 적법한 양도인과 적법한 양도인이 있어야 합니다.
양도인은 생존하고 법적 연령에 이르며 정신적으로 유능해야 합니다.
양도인이 법인인 경우 서명 당사자는 정당하게
인정 받은. 수혜자는 살아 있거나 법적 존재가 있어야 합니다.
그러나 법적 연령이나 정신적으로 유능할 필요는 없습니다.
 서면
 법적 설명 포함
 부여 ​​조항 포함
증서는 양도인의 현재 욕구와
수혜자에게 법적 소유권을 이전하려는 의도.
 고려사항 포함
증서는 귀중한(금전적) 또는 좋은 것이 수반되어야 합니다.
(사랑과 애정) 배려, 하지만 금액을 반영할 필요는 없습니다
대부분의 경우 실제 가격.
 수여자 서명
증서는 양도인이 서명해야 하지만 서명할 필요는 없습니다.
증서에 특별한 조항이 포함되지 않는 한 수혜자에 의해
수혜자의 수락이 필요합니다. 부여자는 다음 권한을 부여할 수 있습니다.
다른 당사자에게 변호사를 선임하여 증서를 실행할 권한을 부여합니다.
부동산실무의 76원칙
그들의 대리. 위임장 권한은 다음과 같아야 합니다.
유효한 운송을 보장하기 위해 기록됩니다.
 인정하다
양도인은 공증인 또는 기타 권한이 있는 사람 앞에서 선언해야 합니다.
양도인의 신원과 서명이 진실한 자,
증서 집행은 자유롭고 자발적인 행위라는 것입니다. 부여자
그런 다음 에서 서명한 승인 증명서를 받습니다.
공증인. 일부 주에서는 유효한 완료를 위해 승인이 필요합니다.
양도. 대부분의 주에서는 기록하기 전에 이를 요구합니다.
증서. 따라서 승인이 없는 행위는 다음과 같은 경향이 있습니다.
재산에 대한 소유권 주장을 위태롭게 하다.

증서를 유효하게 만들기 위해 recoding이 필요하지 않습니다. 그러나 그렇게 하는 것이 수혜자에게 최선의 이익입니다. 증서를 기록하면 수여자의 소유권에 대한 건설적인 통지가 대중에게 제공됩니다.

3.Conveyance clauses and covenant, or warrant, clauses set forth all the
necessary provisions of the conveyance.

Conveyance clauses. Conveyance clauses describe the details of the transfer.
The principal conveyance clauses are:
 Granting clause, or premises clause
the only required clause; contains the conveyance intentions;
names the parties; describes the property; indicates nominal
 Habendum clause
describes the type of estate being conveyed (fee simple, life, etc.)
 Reddendum clause, or reserving clause
recites restrictions and limitations to the estate being conveyed,
e.g., deed restrictions, liens, easements, encroachments, etc.
 Tenendum clause
identifies property being conveyed in addition to land
Covenant, or warrant, clauses. Covenant clauses present the grantor’s
assurances to the grantee. A deed of conveyance usually contains one or more of
the following covenants, depending on the type of deed.
 Warrant of seisin
assures that the grantor owns the estate to be conveyed, and
has the right to do so
Chapter 6: Transferring and Recording Title 77
 Warrant of quiet enjoyment
assures that the grantee will not be disturbed by third party
title disputes
 Warrant of further assurance
assures that the grantor will assist in clearing any title
problems discovered later
 Warranty forever; warranty of title
assures that the grantee will receive good title, and that grantor
will assist in defending any claims to the contrary
 Warrant of encumbrances
assures that there are no encumbrances on the property except
those expressly named
 Warranty against grantor’s acts
states the assurance of a trustee, acting as grantor on behalf of the
owner, that nothing has been done to impair title during the
fiduciary period.

4.Statutory Deeds

A deed of conveyance can make a variety of warranties and convey a range of
interests. The most common deeds are statutory deeds, in which the covenants
are defined in law and do not need to be fully stated in the deed. The prominent
types are the following.
Bargain and sale deed. In a bargain and sale deed, the grantor covenants that
the title is valid but may or may not warrant against encumbrances or promise to
defend against claims by other parties. If there is a warrant of defense, the deed
is a full warranty bargain and sale deed.
The overall bargain and sale covenant is: “I own, but won’t defend.”
General warranty deed. The general warranty deed, or warranty deed for
short, is the most commonly used deed. It contains the fullest possible assurances
of good title and protection for the grantee. The deed is technically a bargain and
sale deed in which the grantor promises to defend against any and all claims to
the title.
The overall general warranty covenant is: “I own and will defend.”
Special warranty deed. In a special warranty deed, the grantor warrants only
against title defects or encumbrances not noted on the deed that may have
occurred during the grantor’s period of ownership or trusteeship. The deed does
not protect the grantee against claims that predate the owner’s period of
ownership. Special warranty deeds are often used by trustees and grantors who
acquired the property through a tax sale.

The overall special warranty covenant is: “I own and will defend against my
acts only.”
Quitclaim deed. A quitclaim deed transfers real and potential interests in a
property, whether an interest is known to exist or not. The grantor makes no
claim to any interest in the property being conveyed and offers no warrants to
protect the grantee.
The quitclaim is typically used to clear title rather than convey it. Where there
is a possibility that prior errors in deeds or other recorded documents might
cloud (encumber) the title, the relevant parties execute a quitclaim deed to
convey “any and all” interest to the grantee.
If a party responsible for encumbering title refuses to quitclaim the interest, the
owner may file a quiet title suit. This requires the lienor to prove the validity of
an interest. If the defendant is unable to do so, the court removes the cloud by


5.Special purpose
deeds A special purpose deed is one tailored to the requirements of specific
parties, properties, and purposes. The principal types are:
 Personal representative’s deed
used by an executor to convey a decedent’s estate; also
called an executor’s deed
 Guardian’s deed
used by a court-appointed guardian to transfer property of
minors or mentally incompetent persons
 Sheriff’s deed
used to convey foreclosed property sold at public auction
 Deed of trust
used to convey property to a third party trustee as collateral for a
loan; on satisfaction of the loan terms, the trustee uses a
reconveyance deed to convey the property back to the borrower
 Deed in trust
used to convey property to the trustee of a land trust. not
to be confused with deed of trust
 Master deed
used to convey land to a condominium developer; accompanied
by the condominium declaration when recorded
Chapter 6: Transferring and Recording Title 79
 Partition deed
used to convey co-owned property in compliance with a court
order resulting from a partition suit; a partition suit terminates
an estate when one or more co-owners want to dissolve their
relationship and are unable to do so without the assistance of a
 Patent deed
used to transfer government property to private parties
 Tax deed
used to convey property sold at a tax sale

6.Transfer tax

State law usually requires payment of a documentary stamp tax on a
conveyance of real property. The tax is based on the actual price of the property
conveyed, thus enabling taxing authorities to ascertain current market value for
ad valorem tax purposes. Payment of the tax is evidenced on the deed.
Exemptions from transfer tax include:
 transfer within the immediate family
 consideration less than a certain amount
 transfer between government
entities or non-profit organizations
 trust deed transfer and reconveyance
 tax deed